What's the difference between tilde(~) and caret(^) in package.json?

Created 12.03.2014 06:02
Viewed 960K times
3903 votes

After I upgraded to the latest stable node and npm, I tried npm install moment --save. It saves the entry in the package.json with the caret ^ prefix. Previously, it was a tilde ~ prefix.

  1. Why are these changes made in npm?
  2. What is the difference between tilde ~ and caret ^?
  3. What are the advantages over others?
4
Comments
FYI you can prevent prefixes or use a custom one by doing: npm config set save-prefix=''. (Stick ~ in the quotes if that's what you prefer.) I personally do this and shrinkwrap for things in production. by fncomp, 22.01.2015 09:48
All the nitty gritty details of how tilde and caret work and differences: github.com/npm/node-semver#tilde-ranges-123-12-1 by Jeffrey Martinez, 13.10.2015 21:31
This tool is a great helper to test semver.npmjs.com by chaiyachaiya, 13.12.2016 12:57
Semantic versioning in npm and node by RBT, 10.01.2019 08:33
Answers 19
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4456

See the NPM docs and semver docs:

  • ~version “Approximately equivalent to version”, will update you to all future patch versions, without incrementing the minor version. ~1.2.3 will use releases from 1.2.3 to <1.3.0.

  • ^version “Compatible with version”, will update you to all future minor/patch versions, without incrementing the major version. ^2.3.4 will use releases from 2.3.4 to <3.0.0.

See Comments below for exceptions, in particular for pre-one versions, such as ^0.2.3

12.03.2014 08:28
Comments
Posting here to hopefully catch people that don't quite think this through, but both ^ and ~ assumes you can trust minor and point releases from your dependencies. If you are publishing a library and want other people to trust you, DO NOT BLINDLY ACCEPT DOWNSTREAM DEPENDENCIES. A bad dot release from your dependency can cause a chain reaction upstream, and will have people knocking at YOUR door when things go pear shaped. This is another huge reason to use npm shrinkwrap on your production code. by tehfoo, 09.02.2015 18:33
You can also just do away with all the nonsense of npm prepending your versions with a ^ or a ~. Set this if you want to have tight control over your versions: npm config set save-prefix='' by kumarharsh, 08.07.2015 06:11
@prasanthv is right: from docs.npmjs.com/misc/semver#caret-ranges-1-2-3-0-2-5-0-0-4: Caret Ranges ^1.2.3 ^0.2.5 ^0.0.4. Allows changes that do not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the [major, minor, patch] tuple. In other words, this allows patch and minor updates for versions 1.0.0 and above, patch updates for versions 0.X >=0.1.0, and no updates for versions 0.0.X. by rofrol, 11.10.2015 16:19
@jgillich in semver when you use 0.2.x, 2 isn't a major version. That's why docs.npmjs.com used the specific words: the left-most non-zero digit. Also what about this case: ^0.0.4 means 0.0.4 by rofrol, 12.10.2015 10:14
Hat matching is broken because it wont update ^0.1.2 to 0.2.0. The rule is: always version your package skipping the 0.x.x version range and you'll get consistent behaviour by catamphetamine, 19.10.2015 11:29
@FagnerBrack: The specific example you provided is correct, but generally your way of thinking is wrong. An example: let's say you have package A in 3 versions: 0.0.1, 0.0.2 and 0.0.3. There is a bug in 0.0.1 so you want to have at least 0.0.2 in your package B. If you write 0.0.x you'll get 0.0.3, which is OK. But if some other package C requires both B and A and additionally has constrain "A": "<0.0.2" you'll get 0.0.1 without showing any conflict issue, which is not what you want. Using tilde ~0.0.2 should help you avoid this issue. by Maciej Sz, 22.10.2015 14:22
@MaciejSz I'm sorry but I didn't understand. Are you saying that the behavior for 0.0.x is different than the behavior of ~0.0.0 or that the behavior of 0.x.0 is different than the behavior of ^0.0.0? Or are you arguing that the 0.x.0/^0.0.0 pattern is better than 0.0.x/~0.0.0 in the context you provided? by Fagner Brack, 22.10.2015 19:30
@FagnerBrack: I'm saying that when using tilde you can define minimum version number (at the least significant version number). With the 0.0.x notation you don't have that option because any least significant version number will be valid. by Maciej Sz, 26.10.2015 12:22
@MaciejSz Now I understand, specifying a minimum version instead of the latest "x" is indeed a valid use case. Very good point. Although I would recommend using neither the "x" or "~" notation to ensure consistency between multiple developers. by Fagner Brack, 26.10.2015 16:26
You now have * wich updates to most recent update regardless the version. by Matias, 21.07.2016 19:30
It's worth noting that you can use npm semver to calculate version ranges for a specific package. by Wildhoney, 06.03.2017 08:21
Caret ups to latest Minor, not Major. It's Major, Minor, Patch, Hotfix. by adi518, 28.02.2018 16:47
In the pre-5.x npm the symbols (~/^) were affecting the downloaded dependencies during npm install. After 5.x the existence of package-lock.json next to package.json prevents this. For updating project dependencies based on the rules described in this post, npm update can be used (which updates also package-lock.json), followed by commit of both package.json and package-lock.json. by Marinos An, 14.05.2018 10:58
This is wrong. As pointed out ^ specifies to update to minor versions & patches (middle & last number), & ~ specifies to only update to patch releases (last number). "Major" is the first number in semantic versioning, specifying breaking changes, which you don't want to auto-update to. Never saw such a glaringly wrong answer with upvoted so highly on here. It's a bit concerning. by Peter Out, 12.06.2018 19:19
I have edited this answer to correct the explanation. Instead of complaining about a wrong answer in its comments, please DO SOMETHING about it next time! by Ian Kemp, 31.08.2018 09:58
The caret will NOT update to the most recent major version. Only minor and patch versions. by Remi Sture, 15.09.2018 06:48
This answer is unsalvageable because it is formed around quoting nonsense. The answer from pspi is correct and should be voted up. The terminology is not somehow misleading. It is nonsense. If you call a dog a horse, and then you say that horses eat meat and bark you're not talking something somehow misleading. by 9ilsdx 9rvj 0lo, 25.09.2018 10:02
We have an issue here folks... WHY does this have 2764 up-votes if it's misleading or incorrect? Maybe don't hit the up-vote button unless you're 100% sure about what you're voting on seems like good practice. Ian, take it down a notch... if an answer is wrong, misleading or confusing... then it deserves discussion, instead of stepping all over each others toes with the edit link. by Chad, 24.10.2018 18:23
It would be better to say "^version Will update you to the next minor version. See semver. ^1.2.3 will use releases from 1.2.0 up to <2.0.0." so that the comparison with ~ is easier. However I realise this is a quote from npm docs - which are also confusing! by Caltor, 02.03.2020 11:01
after changing your npm config, you can run 'npm config list' to see a list of your current configs to make sure you changed it right by Jared, 02.06.2020 18:49
Is timestamp (package's publication time on npm/nexus/etc) taken into account for specifying the version using ~ and ^? by Sohail Si, 22.07.2020 08:30
...will update you to all future... who will update and when? should I run some command from the cli for the update to happen? or what should I do to force the update? by manymanymore, 20.11.2020 09:47
Show remaining 18 comments
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I would like to add the official npmjs documentation as well which describes all methods for version specificity including the ones referred to in the question

valuedesc
~version"Approximately equivalent to version"
See npm semver - Tilde Ranges
^version"Compatible with version"
See npm semver - Caret Ranges
versionMust match version exactly
>versionMust be greater than version
>=versionetc
<version
<=version
1.2.x1.2.0, 1.2.1, etc., but not 1.3.0
*Matches any version
latestObtains latest release

The above list is not exhaustive. Other version specifiers include GitHub urls and GitHub user repo's, local paths and packages with specific npm tags

Official Docs

16.09.2014 06:25
Comments
It is also possible to specify an exact range of versions, like 1.2.0 || >=1.2.2 <1.3.0: Exactly 1.2.0, or everything from 1.2.2 to 1.3.0 (inclusive), but not 1.2.1, or 1.3.1 and above, and also not 1.1.x and below. by CodeManX, 08.06.2016 20:30
A more specific link form the above -> docs.npmjs.com/files/package.json#dependencies by Toby, 11.07.2018 12:38
"Approximately equivalent to version" and "Compatible with version" are such frustratingly non-specific ways to describe ~ and ^ behavior. Thank you @jgillich for providing an actual answer! by Scott Stafford, 17.07.2019 15:21
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npm allows installing newer version of a package than the one specified. Using tilde (~) gives you bug fix releases and caret (^) gives you backwards-compatible new functionality as well.

The problem is old versions usually don't receive bug fixes that much, so npm uses caret (^) as the default for --save.

semver table

According to: "Semver explained - why there's a caret (^) in my package.json?".

Note that the rules apply to versions above 1.0.0 and not every project follows semantic versioning. For versions 0.x.x the caret allows only patch updates, i.e., it behaves the same as the tilde. See "Caret Ranges"

Here's a visual explanation of the concepts:

semver diagram

Source: "Semantic Versioning Cheatsheet".

30.07.2015 20:40
Comments
What about ^0.2.5? from docs.npmjs.com/misc/semver#caret-ranges-1-2-3-0-2-5-0-0-4: Caret Ranges ^1.2.3 ^0.2.5 ^0.0.4. Allows changes that do not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the [major, minor, patch] tuple. In other words, this allows patch and minor updates for versions 1.0.0 and above, patch updates for versions 0.X >=0.1.0, and no updates for versions 0.0.X. by rofrol, 11.10.2015 16:18
@rofrol any version before 1.0.0 is considered unstable and these rules don't apply by pspi, 04.11.2015 09:35
So your explanation isn't complete by rofrol, 04.11.2015 10:22
@rofrol yeah, omitting for readability is good sometimes, chances of having anything below 1.0.0 for a dependency in package json are pretty low. see also 20/80 principle, is a great rule for focusing on what matters by pspi, 04.11.2015 16:42
@pspi Having versions below 1.0.0 is "unlikely"? Out of 60 we've got ~15, and most of them aren't obscure. by Dave Newton, 08.08.2016 21:08
@DaveNewton ouch... even if the version is above 1.0.0 there are no guarantees that the project is following semver, though by pspi, 09.08.2016 12:18
@pspi your answer is lot more clear than any other answers here by Mateen, 21.09.2018 09:16
I like this answer, except the 3.*.* in the table seems confusing. It implies that 3.8.8 could satisfy the ^3.9.2. It would not by bigh_29, 24.04.2021 21:14
Show remaining 3 comments
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126

Semver

<major>.<minor>.<patch>-beta.<beta> == 1.2.3-beta.2
  • Use npm semver calculator for testing. Although the explanations for ^ (include everything greater than a particular version in the same major range) and ~ (include everything greater than a particular version in the same minor range) aren't a 100% correct, the calculator seems to work fine.
  • Alternatively, use SemVer Check instead, which doesn't require you to pick a package and also offers explanations.

Allow or disallow changes

  • Pin version: 1.2.3.
  • Use ^ (like head). Allows updates at the second non-zero level from the left: ^0.2.3 means 0.2.3 <= v < 0.3.
  • Use ~ (like tail). Generally freeze right-most level or set zero if omitted:
  • ~1 means 1.0.0 <= v < 2.0.0
  • ~1.2 means 1.2.0 <= v < 1.3.0.
  • ~1.2.4 means 1.2.4 <= v < 1.3.0.
  • Ommit right-most level: 0.2 means 0.2 <= v < 1. Differs from ~ because:
    • Starting omitted level version is always 0
    • You can set starting major version without specifying sublevels.

All (hopefully) possibilities

Set starting major-level and allow updates upward

*  or "(empty string)   any version
1                         v >= 1

Freeze major-level

~0 (0)            0.0 <= v < 1
0.2               0.2 <= v < 1          // Can't do that with ^ or ~ 
~1 (1, ^1)        1 <= v < 2
^1.2              1.2 <= v < 2
^1.2.3            1.2.3 <= v < 2
^1.2.3-beta.4     1.2.3-beta.4 <= v < 2

Freeze minor-level

^0.0 (0.0)        0 <= v < 0.1
~0.2              0.2 <= v < 0.3
~1.2              1.2 <= v < 1.3
~0.2.3 (^0.2.3)   0.2.3 <= v < 0.3
~1.2.3            1.2.3 <= v < 1.3

Freeze patch-level

~1.2.3-beta.4     1.2.3-beta.4 <= v < 1.2.4 (only beta or pr allowed)
^0.0.3-beta       0.0.3-beta.0 <= v < 0.0.4 or 0.0.3-pr.0 <= v < 0.0.4 (only beta or pr allowed)
^0.0.3-beta.4     0.0.3-beta.4 <= v < 0.0.4 or 0.0.3-pr.4 <= v < 0.0.4 (only beta or pr allowed)

Disallow updates

1.2.3             1.2.3
^0.0.3 (0.0.3)    0.0.3

Notice: Missing major, minor, patch or specifying beta without number, is the same as any for the missing level.

Notice: When you install a package which has 0 as major level, the update will only install new beta/pr level version! That's because npm sets ^ as default in package.json and when installed version is like 0.1.3, it freezes all major/minor/patch levels.

11.10.2015 16:52
Comments
Telling people to avoid starting projects from 0 because library and consuming developers don't understand the system is a terrible solution. I think @asdfasdfads has much better information. by ProLoser, 22.09.2016 19:16
@ProLoser I just think that the system should be simplified, and we shouldn't use 0.x versions. by rofrol, 23.09.2016 08:16
The use case around early lifecycle development and v0 makes a LOT of sense. Learning how v0 behaves properly has actually made me look forward to other early-lifecycle projects. It means you can have a rapidly changing API with lots of backwards incompatibility without being forced to declare your project as 1.x (aka: stable) when it really isn't. by ProLoser, 23.09.2016 17:26
I understand it, but I just don't like how it works with semver and qualifiers by rofrol, 23.09.2016 20:03
It feels more like an opinion and shouldn't be framed as a generally accepted approach. And ^0.1.x gets patches perfectly fine. by ProLoser, 11.10.2016 16:01
@ProLoser But you won't get ^0.1.x by default when installing from npm. Most likely it will be ^0.1.3 which dissalows any updates. Anyway I have dropped the advice for not using 0.* and just added notice. by rofrol, 30.04.2017 09:46
Show remaining 1 comments
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~ fixes major and minor numbers. It is used when you're ready to accept bug-fixes in your dependency, but don't want any potentially incompatible changes.

^ fixes the major number only. It is used when you're closely watching your dependencies and are ready to quickly change your code if minor release will be incompatible.

In addition to that, ^ is not supported by old npm versions, and should be used with caution.

So, ^ is a good default, but it's not perfect. I suggest to carefully pick and configure the semver operator that is most useful to you.

12.03.2014 23:05
Comments
not true: Caret Ranges ^1.2.3 ^0.2.5 ^0.0.4. Allows changes that do not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the [major, minor, patch] tuple. In other words, this allows patch and minor updates for versions 1.0.0 and above, patch updates for versions 0.X >=0.1.0, and no updates for versions 0.0.X. docs.npmjs.com/misc/semver#caret-ranges-1-2-3-0-2-5-0-0-4 by rofrol, 11.10.2015 16:08
This answer is completely wrong (as are many other here). None of these ever fix a major number! As @rofrol said, ^ simply keeps the left most non-zero digit unchanged. ~ on the other hand allows only patch updates if the minor version is specified (e.g. ~1.2.3 or ~1.2) and allows minor updates if the minor version is not specified (e.g. ~1). by TheBaj, 14.07.2017 14:22
@TheBaj They mean "fix" as "define" ("fixate") rather than "adjust", so you all agree on how the major number gets handled. by maaartinus, 10.07.2018 21:41
Yes, this answer seemed totally backwards until I realized the answerer meant "fix" as in "to make fixed, stationary, or unchanging." by Deja, 05.11.2019 05:57
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~ : Reasonably close to

   ~1.1.5: 1.1.0 <= accepted < 1.2.0

^: Compatible with

   ^1.1.5: 1.1.5 <= accepted < 2.0.0

   ^0.1.3: 0.1.3 <= accepted < 0.2.0

   ^0.0.4: 0.0.4 <= accepted < 0.1.0
27.06.2014 16:12
Comments
@kytwb - no. In the special case of zeroth-release version numbers, the carat is equivalent to the tilde. Thus ^0.1.3 only accepts versions 0.1.x and will not accept 0.2.0, even though that's a minor increment. This behavior is equivalent to ~0.1.3. The reasoning behind this behavior is due to the fact that zeroth-release packages are still considered unstable; in the words of semver.org, #4, "anything may change at any time" (including backwards-incompatible changes). by chharvey, 25.02.2015 20:45
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^ is 1.[any].[any] (latest minor version)
~ is 1.2.[any] (latest patch)

A great read is this blog post on how semver applies to npm
and what they're doing to make it match the semver standard
http://blog.npmjs.org/post/98131109725/npm-2-0-0

15.12.2014 18:07
Comments
not true: Caret Ranges ^1.2.3 ^0.2.5 ^0.0.4. Allows changes that do not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the [major, minor, patch] tuple. In other words, this allows patch and minor updates for versions 1.0.0 and above, patch updates for versions 0.X >=0.1.0, and no updates for versions 0.0.X. docs.npmjs.com/misc/semver#caret-ranges-1-2-3-0-2-5-0-0-4 by rofrol, 11.10.2015 16:07
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~ Tilde:

  • ~ freezes major and minor numbers.
  • It is used when you're ready to accept bug-fixes in your dependency, but don't want any potentially incompatible changes.
  • The tilde matches the most recent minor version (the middle number).
  • ~1.2.3 will match all 1.2.x versions, but it will miss 1.3.0.
  • Tilde (~) gives you bug fix releases

^ Caret:

  • ^ freezes the major number only.
  • It is used when you're closely watching your dependencies and are ready to quickly change your code if minor release will be incompatible.
  • It will update you to the most recent major version (the first number).
  • ^1.2.3 will match any 1.x.x release including 1.3.0, but it will hold off on 2.0.0.
  • Caret (^) gives you backwards-compatible new functionality as well.
30.09.2016 10:56
Comments
The tilde matches the most recent patch version (the last number). The caret matches the most most recent minor version (the middle number). by Abdul Rauf, 30.03.2018 04:25
"freezes" is the best explanation. by mhrabiee, 04.09.2019 09:36
Caret both freezes the major number and will update you to the most recent major version (the first number)? The major number is the first number, so this doesn't make sense. by Deja, 29.01.2020 23:57
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Hat matching may be considered "broken" because it wont update ^0.1.2 to 0.2.0. When the software is emerging use 0.x.y versions and hat matching will only match the last varying digit (y). This is done on purpose. The reason is that while the software is evolving the API changes rapidly: one day you have these methods and the other day you have those methods and the old ones are gone. If you don't want to break the code for people who already are using your library you go and increment the major version: e.g. 1.0.0 -> 2.0.0 -> 3.0.0. So, by the time your software is finally 100% done and full-featured it will be like version 11.0.0 and that doesn't look very meaningful, and actually looks confusing. If you were, on the other hand, using 0.1.x -> 0.2.x -> 0.3.x versions then by the time the software is finally 100% done and full-featured it is released as version 1.0.0 and it means "This release is a long-term service one, you can proceed and use this version of the library in your production code, and the author won't change everything tomorrow, or next month, and he won't abandon the package".

The rule is: use 0.x.y versioning when your software hasn't yet matured and release it with incrementing the middle digit when your public API changes (therefore people having ^0.1.0 won't get 0.2.0 update and it won't break their code). Then, when the software matures, release it under 1.0.0 and increment the leftmost digit each time your public API changes (therefore people having ^1.0.0 won't get 2.0.0 update and it won't break their code).

Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment the:

MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes,
MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and
PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes.
19.10.2015 11:24
Comments
This comment was ridiculously helpful and doesn't seem to be documented very well. Do you have a link to the documentation around this behavior? This answer about v0 projects has helped me a lot. by ProLoser, 22.09.2016 19:15
I don't have a link: I found this information too by googling and playing with npm semantic version calculator semver.npmjs.com by catamphetamine, 23.09.2016 12:01
Needs to be added to their documentation in a more formal way. I gave a talk at Sony to my engineering team because it seems to so easily get overlooked. slides.com/proloser/semver-v0 by ProLoser, 23.09.2016 17:27
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Tilde ~ matches minor version, if you have installed a package that has 1.4.2 and after your installation, versions 1.4.3 and 1.4.4 are also available if in your package.json it is used as ~1.4.2 then npm install in your project after upgrade will install 1.4.4 in your project. But there is 1.5.0 available for that package then it will not be installed by ~. It is called minor version.

Caret ^ matches major version, if 1.4.2 package is installed in your project and after your installation 1.5.0 is released then ^ will install major version. It will not allow to install 2.1.0 if you have ^1.4.2.

Fixed version if you don't want to change version of package on each installation then used fixed version with out any special character e.g "1.4.2"

Latest Version * If you want to install latest version then only use * in front of package name.

17.01.2019 10:32
Comments
This answer is misleading. SemVer clearly states, A normal version number MUST take the form X.Y.Z [where] X is the major version, Y is the minor version, and Z is the patch version. by Leo, 28.02.2019 15:03
1
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One liner explanation

The standard versioning system is major.minor.build (e.g. 2.4.1)

npm checks and fixes the version of a particular package based on these characters

~ : major version is fixed, minor version is fixed, matches any build number

e.g. : ~2.4.1 means it will check for 2.4.x where x is anything

^ : major version is fixed, matches any minor version, matches any build number

e.g. : ^2.4.1 means it will check for 2.x.x where x is anything

21.01.2017 08:00
Comments
I see 7 lines in this answer by FluxLemur, 03.04.2018 22:07
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You probably have seen the tilde (~) and caret (^) in the package.json. What is the difference between them?

When you do npm install moment --save, It saves the entry in the package.json with the caret (^) prefix.

The tilde (~)

In the simplest terms, the tilde (~) matches the most recent minor version (the middle number). ~1.2.3 will match all 1.2.x versions but will miss 1.3.0.

The caret (^)

The caret (^), on the other hand, is more relaxed. It will update you to the most recent major version (the first number). ^1.2.3 will match any 1.x.x release including 1.3.0, but will hold off on 2.0.0.

Reference: https://medium.com/@Hardy2151/caret-and-tilde-in-package-json-57f1cbbe347b

26.11.2017 19:12
Comments
Again, this answer is misleading. SemVer clearly states, A normal version number MUST take the form X.Y.Z [where] X is the major version, Y is the minor version, and Z is the patch version. by Leo, 28.02.2019 15:06
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5

Tilde (~)

major version is fixed, minor version is fixed, matches any build number

"express": "~4.13.3" 

~4.13.3 means it will check for 4.13.x where x is anything and 4.14.0

Caret (^)

major version is fixed, matches any minor version, matches any build number

"supertest": "^3.0.0"

^3.0.0 means it will check for 3.x.x where x is anything

09.03.2018 12:21
Comments
Can you elaborate on how this answer is different from the same answer posted 4 years ago? by Franklin Yu, 06.11.2018 19:31
0
6

semver is separate in to 3 major sections which is broken by dots.

major.minor.patch
1.0.0

These different major, minor and patch are using to identify different releases. tide (~) and caret (^) are using to identify which minor and patch version to be used in package versioning.

~1.0.1
 Install 1.0.1 or **latest patch versions** such as 1.0.2 ,1.0.5
^1.0.1
 Install 1.0.1 or **latest patch and minor versions** such as 1.0.2 ,1.1.0 ,1.1.1
27.11.2019 08:52
1
3

The version number is in syntax which designates each section with different meaning. syntax is broken into three sections separated by a dot.

major.minor.patch 1.0.2

Major, minor and patch represent the different releases of a package.

npm uses the tilde (~) and caret (^) to designate which patch and minor versions to use respectively.

So if you see ~1.0.2 it means to install version 1.0.2 or the latest patch version such as 1.0.4. If you see ^1.0.2 it means to install version 1.0.2 or the latest minor or patch version such as 1.1.0.

28.09.2018 06:58
Comments
Can you elaborate on how this answer is different from the same answer posted 4 years ago? by Franklin Yu, 06.11.2018 19:33
0
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carat ^ include everything greater than a particular version in the same major range.

tilde ~ include everything greater than a particular version in the same minor range.

For example, to specify acceptable version ranges up to 1.0.4, use the following syntax:

  • Patch releases: 1.0 or 1.0.x or ~1.0.4
  • Minor releases: 1 or 1.x or ^1.0.4
  • Major releases: * or x

For more information on semantic versioning syntax, see the npm semver calculator.

npm semantic versions in published packages§

More from npm documentation About semantic versioning

01.07.2019 11:43
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0

~ specfices to minor version releases ^ specifies to major version releases

For example if package version is 4.5.2 ,on Update ~4.5.2 will install latest 4.5.x version (MINOR VERSION) ^4.5.2 will install latest 4.x.x version (MAJOR VERSION)

04.05.2018 11:02
Comments
Can you elaborate on how this answer is different from the same answer posted 4 years ago? by Franklin Yu, 06.11.2018 19:32
0
2

Not an answer, per se, but an observation that seems to have been overlooked.

The description for carat ranges:

see: https://github.com/npm/node-semver#caret-ranges-123-025-004

Allows changes that do not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the [major, minor, patch] tuple.

Means that ^10.2.3 matches 10.2.3 <= v < 20.0.0

I don't think that's what they meant. Pulling in versions 11.x.x through 19.x.x will break your code.

I think they meant left most non-zero number field. There is nothing in SemVer that requires number-fields to be single-digit.

20.03.2019 22:13
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Related to this question you can review Composer documentation on versions, but here in short:

  • Tilde Version Range (~) - ~1.2.3 is equivalent to >=1.2.3 <1.3.0
  • Caret Version Range (^) - ~1.2.3 is equivalent to >=1.2.3 <2.0.0

So, with Tilde you will get automatic updates of patches but minor and major versions will not be updated. However, if you use Caret you will get patches and minor versions, but you will not get major (breaking changes) versions.

Tilde Version is considered "safer" approach, but if you are using reliable dependencies (well-maintained libraries) you should not have any problems with Caret Version (because minor changes should not be breaking changes.

You should probably review this stackoverflow post about differences between composer install and composer update.

18.02.2020 14:36